Degrees of Freedom Tutorial

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A lot of researchers seem to be struggling with their understanding of the statistical concept of degrees of freedom. Most do not really care about why degrees of freedom are important to statistical tests, but just want to know how to calculate and report them. This page will help. For those interested in learning more about degrees of freedom, take a look at the following resources: This chapter in the little handbook of statistical practice Walker, H. W. (1940). Degrees of Freedom. Journal of Educational Psychology, 31(4), 253-269. I couldn’t find any resource on the web that explains calculating degrees of freedom in a simple and clear manner and believe this page will fill that void. It reflects my current understanding of degrees of freedom, based on what I read in textbooks and scattered sources on the web. Feel free to add or comment.

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Type of resources: Reading, Student Guide, Teaching/Learning Strategy

Education level(s): College / Upper Division (Undergraduates), Graduate / Professional, Adult Education

Primary user(s): Student, Teacher

Subject area(s): Applied Science, Education, Life Science, Math & Statistics, Social Science

Language(s): English