Citation bias

Definition: A biased selection of papers or authors cited and included in the references section. When citation bias is present, it is often in a way which would benefit the author(s) or reviewers, over-represents statistically significant studies, or reflects pervasive gender or racial biases (Brooks, 1985; Jannot et al., 2013; Zurn et al., 2020). One proposed solution is the use of Citation Diversity Statements, in which authors reflect on their citation practices and identify biases which may have emerged (Zurn et al., 2020).

Related terms: <a href='/glossary/citation-diversity-statement/'>Citation diversity statement</a>, Reporting bias

References: Brooks (1985), Jannot et al. (2013), Thombs et al. (2015), & Zurn et al. (2020)

Drafted and Reviewed by: Bettina M. J. Kern, Mahmoud Elsherif, Annalise A. LaPlume, Helena Hartmann, Bethan Iley, Charlotte R. Pennington, Timo Roettger, Tobias Wingen

Note that we are currently working on an automated mechanism to link references cited above with their full-length version that can be found at with all references used so far.