Definition: A mathematical representation of observed data that aims to reflect the population under study, allowing for the better understanding of the phenomenon of interest, identification of relationships among variables and predictions about future instances. A classic example would be the application of Chi square to understand the relationship between smoking and cancer (Doll & Hill, 1954).
Alternative definition: A mathematical model that embodies a set of statistical assumptions concerning the generation of sample data and is used to apply statistical analysis.
Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST)
Reference: Doll and Hill (1954)
Drafted and Reviewed by: Jamie P. Cockcroft, Alaa AlDoh, Mahmoud Elsherif, Meng Liu, Catia M. Oliveira, Charlotte R. Pennington
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