Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST)

Definition: A frequentist approach to inference used to test the probability of an observed effect against the null hypothesis of no effect/relationship (Pernet, 2015). Such a conclusion is arrived at through use of an index called the p-value. Specifically, researchers will conclude an effect is present when an a priori alpha threshold, set by the researchers, is satisfied; this determines the acceptable level of uncertainty and is closely related to Type I error.

Related terms: Inference, P-value, Statistical significance, Type I error

References: Lakens et al. (2018), Pernet (2015), & Spence and Stanley (2018)

Drafted and Reviewed by: Alaa AlDoh, Jamie P. Cockcroft, Annalise A. LaPlume, Charlotte R. Pennington, Sonia Rishi

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