Open Science

Definition: An umbrella term reflecting the idea that scientific knowledge of all kinds, where appropriate, should be openly accessible, transparent, rigorous, reproducible, replicable, accumulative, and inclusive, all which are considered fundamental features of the scientific endeavour. Open science consists of principles and behaviors that promote transparent, credible, reproducible, and accessible science. Open science has six major aspects: open data, open methodology, open source, open access, open peer review, and open educational resources.

Related terms: Accessibility, Credibility, Open Data, Open Material, Open Peer Review, Open Research, Open Scholarship, Open Science Practices, Reproducibility, Reproducibility crisis (aka Replicability or replication crisis), Transparency

References: Abele-Brehm et al. (2019), Crüwell et al. (2019), Kathawalla et al. (2020), Syed (2019), & Woelfe et al. (2011)

Drafted and Reviewed by: Mahmoud Elsherif, Zoe Flack, Tamara Kalandadze, Charlotte R. Pennington, Qinyu Xiao

Note that we are currently working on an automated mechanism to link references cited above with their full-length version that can be found at with all references used so far.